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Standard User Ripley
(experienced) Fri 05-Jan-18 13:48:16
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Links between internet exchanges and cable landing stations


[link to this post]
 
I was thinking the other day that I've never really heard any mention of how the internet exchanges are connected through to the cable landing stations, does anybody in the know have any info on this?

Maybe take Cornwall as an example where there are numerous cable landing stations, which cables running all over the world. I've read these are connected on a ring.

So how would traffic from LINX find its way from London to one of these submarine cables?

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Administrator MrSaffron
(staff) Fri 05-Jan-18 15:51:38
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Re: Links between internet exchanges and cable landing stati


[re: Ripley] [link to this post]
 
A fibre optic backbone/trunk route

The author of the above post is a thinkbroadband staff member. It may not constitute an official statement on behalf of thinkbroadband.
Standard User Ripley
(experienced) Fri 05-Jan-18 18:12:31
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Re: Links between internet exchanges and cable landing stati


[re: MrSaffron] [link to this post]
 
So would that be via a little data centre at the cable station? So various internet exchanges can connect into the marine cables? They must have some powerful routers...

I just thought it a little odd as itís all somewhat hidden away in Cornwall

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Standard User Zarjaz
(eat-sleep-adslguide) Fri 05-Jan-18 18:20:17
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Re: Links between internet exchanges and cable landing stati


[re: Ripley] [link to this post]
 
I expect Cornwall was originally chosen as the geographically closest point on the mainland to start running telegraph cables to the States under the Atlantic , saved a couple of quid on cables no doubt.

And thus it has just evolved there.

Standard User partial
(experienced) Fri 05-Jan-18 18:53:09
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Re: Links between internet exchanges and cable landing stati


[re: Zarjaz] [link to this post]
 
The original US/UK landing station was Oban.
Standard User eckiedoo
(fountain of knowledge) Fri 05-Jan-18 19:08:30
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Re: Links between internet exchanges and cable landing stati


[re: Ripley] [link to this post]
 
Some of the Trans-Atlantic Cables head out from the west coast of Scotland.

As well as slightly reducing the lengths as Zarjaz has said, because of the nature of the coastlines and depth of sea-bed in those parts, gives some protection from shipping, anchors and fishing trawls.

If a cable gets damaged or broken, it is very costly for a highly--specialised cable ship to head to the general area of the break, locate it specifically, , dredge up the broken ends, cut back to a good section, not damaged by water ingress, splice the replacement cable in at one end, then move possibly a mile or a kilometre to the suitable point in the other part; going through the whole rigmarole at the other end.

In itself, depending on the sea depth; and the angles of dangles, there may be similar lengths of cable unsupported during the operations, thus liable to further damage.

The end result of that part is that the repaired cable is now longer than the original, straight-laid cable.

The structure and impedance of the replacement cable must be reasonable matches to the original cable, to avoid reflections and losses, as Zarjaz is aware of by his use of TDRs/JDSUs.

Such cable may not be available "off-the shelf" etc.

Once the initial physical repair has been carried out, the repaired cable has to be tested, end-to-end, to ensure that the necessary electrical parameters are met.

All on the stormy ocean and sea, with tidal surges etc.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cable_layer

http://www.kis-orca.eu/subsea-cables/maintenance-rep...

Note the sizes of those ships.

===============

Oil and gas under-sea pipelines have similar arrangements, along with the few Electricity Inter-Connetors.

Edited by eckiedoo (Fri 05-Jan-18 19:21:43)

Standard User Ripley
(experienced) Fri 05-Jan-18 19:25:13
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Re: Links between internet exchanges and cable landing stati


[re: eckiedoo] [link to this post]
 
I get how the marine cables work. My question was more the separation of the cable landing stations and the internet exchanges.

You have the London internet exchange using terabytes of bandwidth, and the marine cables with terabytes of bandwidth... but a huge distance between London and Cornwall

Was trying to picture what links the two together.

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Standard User Zarjaz
(eat-sleep-adslguide) Fri 05-Jan-18 19:53:09
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Re: Links between internet exchanges and cable landing stati


[re: partial] [link to this post]
 
Yeah, but the Yanks couldnít understand the accents on the telegrams.

Standard User Zarjaz
(eat-sleep-adslguide) Fri 05-Jan-18 19:54:34
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Re: Links between internet exchanges and cable landing stati


[re: Ripley] [link to this post]
 
Fibre, fibre and more fibre.

ISP Representative jongreen84
(isp) Fri 05-Jan-18 20:37:02
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Re: Links between internet exchanges and cable landing stati


[re: Ripley] [link to this post]
 
The routers are typically in the major datacentres in places like London and Manchester. Providers such as ourselves (Zen), and others, will then lease, or have their own connectivity (either wavelengths from bigger providers, or dark fibre which the providers then light themselves) to the cable landing stations in Cornwall/Southport/East Anglia and so on. This is the fibre, fibre and more fibre that Zarjaz speaks of.

Hope this helps,

Jon

Edit to add:

In reply to a post by Ripley:
I just thought it a little odd as itís all somewhat hidden away in Cornwall


You'd be surprised where a lot of it is hidden away. On a related note, which Zarjaz can probably relate to - you get an eye for places such as this, especially BT exchanges. Now I can spot the OBASS card reader a mile off!

Edited by jongreen84 (Fri 05-Jan-18 20:41:30)

The above post has been made by an ISP REPRESENTATIVE (although not necessarily the ISP being discussed in the post).
Standard User Michael_Chare
(fountain of knowledge) Fri 05-Jan-18 20:56:14
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Re: Links between internet exchanges and cable landing stati


[re: eckiedoo] [link to this post]
 
Do the transatlantic fibre cables have amplifiers?

Michael Chare
ISP Representative jongreen84
(isp) Fri 05-Jan-18 21:10:58
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Re: Links between internet exchanges and cable landing stati


[re: Michael_Chare] [link to this post]
 
In reply to a post by Michael_Chare:
Do the transatlantic fibre cables have amplifiers?


They do. It's been a while since I looked into this in detail, but there's a lot of information on Google. There's some very clever stuff going on out there!
The above post has been made by an ISP REPRESENTATIVE (although not necessarily the ISP being discussed in the post).
Standard User ggremlin
(experienced) Fri 05-Jan-18 22:04:32
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Re: Links between internet exchanges and cable landing stati


[re: Ripley] [link to this post]
 
have you ever wondered why GCHQ have a station at Bude ?
Standard User Ripley
(experienced) Fri 05-Jan-18 23:00:07
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Re: Links between internet exchanges and cable landing stati


[re: jongreen84] [link to this post]
 
Many thanks Jon thatís the info I was looking for.

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Standard User Ripley
(experienced) Fri 05-Jan-18 23:01:58
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Re: Links between internet exchanges and cable landing stati


[re: Ripley] [link to this post]
 
This is an amazing video showing what goes off in Cornwall.

https://youtu.be/K_nnUbX7uuQ

First five mins just an introduction but then gets very interesting

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Standard User RobertoS
(elder) Fri 05-Jan-18 23:38:05
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Re: Links between internet exchanges and cable landing stati


[re: Ripley] [link to this post]
 
Quite a few of the places he highlights there I have visited many times. Prime ones being the Marconi site and Poldhu which has a super beach for dogs! There's one, I forget which, with a now disused(?) tiny hut to do with this stuff.

Did you get to the bit about the optical vacuum tube taking a few ms off trans-Atlantic times, with financial transactions now routing through it? (Soon after 52 mins in).

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Standard User Ripley
(experienced) Sat 06-Jan-18 09:59:42
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Re: Links between internet exchanges and cable landing stati


[re: RobertoS] [link to this post]
 
Yeah watched it all the way through, interesting about the low latency link.

Fascinating to see all of those places and cables

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Standard User Michael_Chare
(fountain of knowledge) Sat 06-Jan-18 10:59:03
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Re: Links between internet exchanges and cable landing stati


[re: Ripley] [link to this post]
 
Interesting video, thank you for the link.

Michael Chare
Standard User craski
(committed) Sat 06-Jan-18 11:04:48
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Re: Links between internet exchanges and cable landing stati


[re: Michael_Chare] [link to this post]
 
+1
I found it interesting too. Thanks.

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Standard User Icaras
(experienced) Thu 11-Jan-18 07:35:48
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Re: Links between internet exchanges and cable landing stati


[re: ggremlin] [link to this post]
 
In reply to a post by ggremlin:
have you ever wondered why GCHQ have a station at Bude ?


No! Itís obvious.

In reply to a post by craski:
+1
I found it interesting too. Thanks.


Yep, heís done a good job with his research. Though some of the manhole covers heís unsure of are in fact BT ones (ĎTELECOMí, ĎTELECOM HDí etc). The BT site that he says is probably disused, doesnít look like it to me, itís got an active OBASS card reader on it, would appear to be a live site. Could be for anything though.

I donít understand why he was so surprised to see a Verizon building on the industrial estate though, as heís got footage of Verizon manhole covers in the video.

Icaras

Edited by Icaras (Thu 11-Jan-18 07:40:05)

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